The Serial Comma

Christina Moore asks, “Should a comma be placed after the last item that comes before the word “and” when listing three or more items in a sentence?”

Unless you are writing for a newspaper or magazine, or for another publication with a style guide that discourages its use, my advice is to use the serial comma.

The main reason for using the serial, or Oxford, comma is that it helps avoid a reader’s momentary confusion. The classic example of this confusion, as noted in World Wide Words, comes from an apocryphal book dedication: “To my parents, Ayn Rand and God.” While we can be pretty sure that the author’s parents are not Ayn Rand and God, the absence of the comma after “Rand” might make the reader pause or re-read.

In her excellent book Rhetorical Grammar, Martha Kolln claims that the absence of a serial comma “may imply a closer connection than actually exists between the last two elements in the series.” She provides an example from The New York Times to demonstrate: “The agricultural and industrial revolutions were accompanied by new plagues, pollutants and weapons of destruction.” In this sentence it’s easy to see how the reader might think that there are two plagues—pollutants and weapons of destruction. A reader might also interpret the last two elements as being shorthand for “pollutants of destruction and weapons of destruction.”

In his poem “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” Robert Frost has this terrific line:

These woods are lovely, dark and deep

Here it makes sense to drop the comma before the “and” because Frost is saying that the woods are lovely in that they are dark and deep, rather than saying that the woods are lovely and dark and deep. In other words, the “dark” and “deep” describe the loveliness. Apparently, some poetry anthology editors have added the comma before the “and,” even though Frost didn’t include it in his published version of the poem. Can you see how that comma subtly changes the meaning of the sentence? Those editors should have left the comma out.


Here are a few other articles and weblog entries that discuss the serial comma:

Posted in punctuation | 4 Comments

Comma with Jr. or III

Roslyn Hamp asks, “When you write a name with a jr. after the last name, a comma is used. When you write III, do you put a comma after the name?”…

Posted in punctuation | 1 Comment

Rather Than and Instead Of

Kanika recently asked, “When do we use ‘rather than’ and when do we use ‘instead of’?”

Posted in usage | 2 Comments

The Ampersand

Simon asks about the use of the ampersand (&)

Posted in mechanics | 3 Comments

Writing Numbers

A couple people have asked me recently about when to use figures for numbers (e.g. “25”) and when to spell them out (e.g. “six”)…

Posted in mechanics | 8 Comments

adviser or advisor

Someone asked today in a comment whether “documentor” or “documenter” is correct. The corect word is “documenter.” The question got me wondering, though, about another spelling dilemma: “adviser” or “advisor”…

Posted in spelling | 16 Comments

Hyphens for Compound Adjectives

Andy Bell asked a great question about when to use a hyphen…

Posted in punctuation | 4 Comments

Lie and Lay

Someone recently asked about the correct use of “lie” versus “lay.”

Posted in usage | Comments Off on Lie and Lay

Farther and Further

Sandy Mendenhall wrote in to ask about the proper use of “farther” and “further”…

Posted in usage | 2 Comments

Figures of Speech

Devendra asks, “what are figures of speech. I want the definition and an example of all figures of speech.”

Posted in general | 14 Comments